Archive for September, 2012

baking dictionary

September 24, 2012

A
Absorption: The amount of water a flour can take up and hold while being made into a simple dough, based on a predetermined standard dough consistency or stiffness; expressed as a percentage of the weight of flour.
Air Cell: A tiny bubble of air, created by creaming or foaming, that assists in leavening a dough or batter.
Allumette: Any of various puff pastry items made in thin sticks or strips (French word for “matchstick”).
Almond Paste: A mixture of finely ground almonds and sugar.
Angel Food Cake: A type of cake made of meringue (egg whites and sugar) and flour.
Angel Food Method: A cake-mixing method involving folding a mixture of flour and sugar into a meringue.
Apple Charlotte: A dessert of apples cut up and baked in a mold lined with bread slices.
Artisan Bread: Bread made by a skilled manual worker; usually referring to handmade breads made using traditional methods and with natural ingredients only.
Ash: The mineral content of flour; expressed as a percentage of the total weight.
Autolyse: A resting period early in the mixing procedure of yeast doughs, during which the flour fully absorbs the water.

B
Baba: A type of yeast bread or cake that is soaked in syrup.
Babka: A type of sweet yeast bread or coffee cake.
Bagel: A ring-shaped lean yeast dough product made from a very stiff dough.
Bagged: A cookie makeup method in which the dough is shaped and deposited with a pastry bag.
Baked Alaska: A dessert consisting of ice cream on a sponge cake base, covered with meringue and browned in the oven.
Baked Custard: A custard that is baked without being disturbed so it sets into a solid.
Baked Meringue: Any of various meringue mixtures that are baked until dry.
Baking Ammonia: A leavening ingredient that releases ammonia gas and carbon dioxide.
Baklava: A Greek or Middle Eastern dessert made of nuts and phyllo dough and soaked with syrup.
Bar: A cookie makeup method in which the dough is shaped into flattened cylinders, baked, and sliced crosswise into individual cookies; a cookie made by this method.
Barm: A sourdough starter with a thin, batterlike consistency.
Batter: A semiliquid mixture containing flour or other starch, used for the production of such products as cakes and breads and for coating products to be deep fried.
Baumkuchen (bowm koo khen): A cake made by adding one thin layer of batter at a time to a pan and browning lightly under a broiler after each addition, repeating until the cake is the desired thickness.
Bavarian Cream: A light, cold dessert made of gelatin, whipped cream, and custard sauce or fruit.
Beignet Soufflé (ben yay soo flay): A type of fritter made with éclair paste, which puffs up greatly when fried.
Biga: A yeast pre-ferment made as a stiff dough.
Biscuit Method: A mixing method in which the fat is mixed with the dry ingredients before the liquid ingredients are added.
Black Forest Torte: A chocolate sponge layer cake filled with whipped cream and cherries.
Blancmange (bla mahnge): (1) An English pudding made of milk, sugar, and cornstarch. (2) A French dessert made of milk, cream, almonds, and gelatin.
Blitz Puff Pastry: A type of pastry that is mixed like a very flaky pie dough, then rolled and folded like puff pastry.
Bloom: A whitish coating on chocolate, caused by separated cocoa butter.
Blown Sugar: Pulled sugar that is made into thin-walled, hollow shapes by being blown up like a balloon.
Boiled Icing: Italian meringue used as a cake icing.
Bombe: A type of frozen dessert made in a dome-shaped mold.
Boston Cream Pie: A sponge cake or other yellow cake filled with pastry cream and topped with chocolate fondant or confectioners’ sugar.
Bran: The hard outer covering of kernels of wheat and other grains.
Bran Flour: Flour to which bran flakes have been added.
Bread Flour: Strong flour, such as patent flour, used for breads.
Brioche: Rich yeast dough containing large amounts of eggs and butter; a product made from this dough.
Brown Sugar: Regular granulated sucrose containing various impurities that give it a distinctive flavor.
Buttercream: An icing made of butter and/or shortening blended with confectioners’ sugar or sugar syrup and, sometimes, other ingredients.

C
Cabinet Pudding: A baked custard containing sponge cake and fruit.
Cake Flour: A fine, white flour made from soft wheat.
Cannoli: Fried Italian pastries made in tube shapes, generally with a sweet cream or cheese filling (singular form is cannolo).
Caramelization: The browning of sugars caused by heat.
Cassata: An Italian-style bombe, usually with three layers of different ice creams, plus a filling of Italian meringue.
Cast Sugar: Sugar that is boiled to the hard crack stage and then poured into molds to harden. Also called poured sugar.
Celsius Scale: The metric system of temperature measurement, with 0°C at the freezing point of water and 100°C at the boiling point of water.
Centi-: Prefix in the metric system meaning “one-hundredth.”
Challah: A rich egg bread, often made as a braided loaf.
Charlotte: (1) A cold dessert made of Bavarian cream or other cream in a special mold, usually lined with ladyfingers or other sponge products. (2) A hot dessert made of cooked fruit and baked in a special mold lined with strips of bread.
Charlotte Ring: A metal ring used as a mold for charlottes and other desserts.
Chemical Leavener: A leavener such as baking soda, baking powder, or baking ammonia, which releases gases produced by chemical reactions.
Chiffon Cake: A light cake made by the chiffon method.
Chiffon Method: A cake-mixing method involving the folding of whipped egg whites into a batter made of flour, egg yolks, and oil.
Chiffon Pie: A pie with a light, fluffy filling containing egg whites and, usually, gelatin.
Chocolate Liquor: Unsweetened chocolate, consisting of cocoa solids and cocoa butter.
Chocolate Truffle: A small ball of chocolate ganache, served as a confection.
Christmas Pudding: A dark, heavy steamed pudding made of dried and candied fruits, spices, beef suet, and crumbs.
Ciabatta: A type of Italian bread made from a very slack dough deposited on pans with minimal shaping.
Clear Flour: A tan-colored wheat flour made from the outer portion of the endosperm.
Coagulation: The process by which proteins become firm, usually when heated.
Cobbler: A fruit dessert similar to a pie but without a bottom crust.
Cocoa: The dry powder that remains after cocoa butter is pressed out of chocolate liquor.
Cocoa Butter: A white or yellowish fat found in natural chocolate.
Common Meringue: Egg whites and sugar whipped to a foam; also called French meringue.
Complex Presentation: A style of plating a dessert consisting of an arrangement of two or more desserts plus sauces and garnishes.
Compote: Cooked fruit served in its cooking liquid, usually a sugar syrup.
Conching: A step in the manufacturing of chocolate, the purpose of which is to create a fine, smooth texture.
Confectioners’ Sugar: Sucrose that is ground to a fine powder and mixed with a little cornstarch to prevent caking.
Cooked Fruit Method: A method for making pie fillings in which the fruit is cooked and thickened before being placed in the pie crust.
Cooked Juice Method: A method for making pie fillings in which the fruit juices are cooked, thickened, and mixed with the fruit.
Cornstarch Pudding: A sweetened liquid, usually milk and flavorings, that is boiled with cornstarch to thicken it.
Coulis: A sweetened fruit purée, used as a sauce.
Coupe: A dessert consisting of one or two scoops of ice cream or sherbet placed in a dish or glass and topped with any of a number of syrups, fruits, toppings, and garnishes; a sundae.
Couverture: Natural, sweet chocolate containing no added fats other than natural cocoa butter; used for dipping, molding, coating, and similar purposes.
Creaming: The process of beating fat and sugar together to blend them uniformly and to incorporate air.
Creaming Method: A mixing method that begins with the blending of fat and sugar; used for cakes, cookies, and similar items.
Cream Pie: An unbaked pie containing a pastry-cream-type filling.
Cream Pudding: A boiled pudding made of milk, sugar, eggs, and starch.
Crème Anglaise (krem awng glezz): A light vanilla-flavored custard sauce made of milk, sugar, and egg yolks.
Crème Brûlée: A rich custard with a brittle top crust of caramelized sugar (French name means “burnt cream”).
Crème Caramel: A custard baked in a mold lined with caramelized sugar, then unmolded.
Crème Chantilly (krem shawn tee yee): Sweetened whipped cream flavored with vanilla.
Crème Chiboust: A cream filling made of pastry cream, gelatin, meringue, and flavorings.
Crème Fraîche (krem fresh): A slightly aged, cultured heavy cream with a slightly tangy flavor.
Crêpe (krep): A very thin French pancake, often served rolled around a filling.
Crêpes Suzette: French pancakes served in a sweet sauce flavored with orange.
Croissant (krwah sawn): A flaky, buttery yeast roll shaped like a crescent and made from a rolled-in dough.
Crumb Crust: A pie crust made of cookie crumbs, butter, and sugar.
Crystallize: To form crystals, as in the case of dissolved sugar.
Custard: A liquid that is thickened or set by the coagulation of egg protein.

D
Dark Chocolate: Sweetened chocolate that consists of chocolate liquor and sugar.
Deci-: Prefix in the metric system meaning “one-tenth.”
Demerara Sugar: A type of crystalline, brown sucrose.
Dessert Syrup: A flavored sugar syrup used to flavor and moisten cakes and other desserts.
Devil’s Food Cake: A chocolate cake made with a high percentage of baking soda, which gives the cake a reddish color.
Diastase: Various enzymes, found in flour and in diastatic malt, that convert starch into sugar.
Disaccharide: A complex or “double” sugar, such as sucrose.
Dobos Torte: A Hungarian cake made of seven thin layers filled with chocolate buttercream and topped with caramelized sugar.
Docking: Piercing or perforating pastry dough before baking in order to allow steam to escape and to avoid blistering.
Double-Acting Baking Powder: Baking powder that releases some of its gases when it is mixed with water and the remaining gases when it is heated.
Double-Panning: Placing a baking sheet or pan on or in a second pan to prevent scorching the bottom of the product being baked.
Drained Weight: The weight of solid canned fruit after draining off the juice.
Dredge: To sprinkle thoroughly with sugar or another dry powder.
Drop Batter: A batter that is too thick to pour but will drop from a spoon in lumps.
Dropped: A cookie makeup method in which portions of dough are measured with a scoop or spoon and dropped onto a baking pan.
Dutch Process Cocoa: Cocoa that has been processed with an alkali to reduce its acidity.

E
éclair Paste: A paste or dough made of boiling water or milk, butter, flour, and eggs; used to make éclairs, cream puffs, and similar products.
Egg-Foam Cake: A cake leavened primarily by whipped eggs; it usually has a low percentage of fat.
Emulsified Shortening: Shortening containing emulsifiers so that it can be used for high-ratio cakes.
Emulsion: A uniform mixture of two or more unmixable substances.
Endosperm: The starchy inner portion of grain kernels.
English Muffin: A yeast dough product made in the shape of a disk and cooked on a griddle.
Extract: A flavoring ingredient consisting of flavorful oils or other substances dissolved in alcohol.
Extraction: The portion of the grain kernel that is separated into a particular grade of flour. Usually expressed as a percentage.

F
Fermentation: The process by which yeast changes carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
Flaky Pie Crust: A pie crust that has a flaky texture due to layers of fat sandwiched between layers of dough.
Flat Icing: A simple icing made of confectioners’ sugar and water, usually used for Danish pastries and sweet rolls.
Flour-Batter Method: A cake-mixing method in which the flour is first mixed with the fat.
Foaming: The process of whipping eggs, with or without sugar, to incorporate air.
Focaccia: A flat Italian bread similar to a thick pizza dough.
Fondant: A type of icing made of boiled sugar syrup that is agitated so that it crystallizes into a mass of extremely small white crystals.
Fougasse: A regional French bread made in the shape of a trellis or ladder.
Four-Fold: A technique used to increase the number of layers in puff pastry or Danish pastry by folding the dough in fourths.
Frangipane: A type of almond-flavored cream.
French Doughnut: A fried pastry made of choux paste.
French Meringue: Egg whites and sugar whipped to a foam; also called common meringue.
French Pastry: Any of a variety of small fancy cakes and other pastries, usually in single-portion sizes.
French-Style Ice Cream: Ice cream containing egg yolks.
Fritter: A deep-fried item made of or coated with a batter or dough.
Frozen Mousse: A still-frozen dessert containing whipped cream.
Fruit Betty: A baked dessert consisting of layers of fruit and cake crumbs.
Fruit Cake: A loaf cake containing a high percentage of dried and candied fruits and, usually, nuts.
Fruit Cobbler: A baked fruit dessert with a pastry topping or top crust.
Fruit Crisp: A baked fruit dessert with a streusel topping.
Fruit Gratin: A dessert consisting of fruit plus a topping, browned under a broiler.
Fruit Pie: A baked single- or double-crust pie with a fruit filling.
Fruit Torte: A layer cake topped with a decorative arrangement of fruit.

G
Ganache (gah nahsh): A rich cream made of sweet chocolate and heavy cream.
Garnish: An edible item added to another food as a decoration or accompaniment.
Gâteau (gah toe): French word for “cake.”
Gâteau St-Honoré: A pastry consisting of a base made of short pastry and pâte à choux and a cream filling, usually crème chiboust or crème diplomat.
Gaufre (go fr’): French for “waffle.”
Gelatin: A water-soluble protein ex-tracted from animal tissue, used as a jelling agent.
Gelatinization: The process by which starch granules absorb water and swell in size.
Gelato: Italian ice cream.
Genoise: A sponge cake made by whipping whole eggs with sugar and folding in flour and, sometimes, melted butter.
Germ: The plant embryo portion of a grain kernel.
Glacé (glah say): (1) Glazed; coated with icing. (2) Frozen.
Glaze: (1) A shiny coating, such as a syrup, applied to a food. (2) To make a food shiny or glossy by coating it with a glaze or by browning it under a broiler or in a hot oven.
Gliadin: A protein in wheat flour that combines with another protein, glutenin, to form gluten.
Glucose: A simple sugar available in the form of a clear, colorless, tasteless syrup.
Gluten: An elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.
Glutenin: See Gliadin.
Gram: The basic unit of weight in the metric system; equal to about one-thirtieth of an ounce.
Granité (grah nee tay): A coarse, crystalline frozen dessert made of water, sugar, and fruit juice or another flavoring.
Granulated Sugar: Sucrose in a fine crystalline form.
Gum Paste: A type of sugar paste or pastillage made with vegetable gum.

H
Hard Sauce: A flavored mixture of confectioners’ sugar and butter; often served with steamed puddings.
Hard Wheat: Wheat high in protein.
Hearth Bread: A bread that is baked directly on the bottom of the oven, not in a pan.
Heavy Pack: A type of canned fruit or vegetable with very little added water or juice.
High-Fat Cake: A cake with a high percentage of fat; distinguished from a sponge or egg-foam cake.
High-Ratio: (1) Term referring to cakes and cake formulas mixed by a special method and containing more sugar than flour. (2) The mixing method used for these cakes. (3) Term referring to certain specially formu-lated ingredients used in these cakes, such as shortening.
High-Ratio Method: See Two-Stage Method.
Homogenized Milk: Milk that has been processed so the cream does not separate out.
Hot Milk and Butter Sponge: A sponge cake batter in which a mixture of warm milk and melted butter is mixed into the batter.
Hydrogenation: A process that converts liquid oils to solid fats (shortenings) by chemically bonding hydrogen to the fat molecules.

I
Ice: A frozen dessert made of water, sugar, and fruit juice.
Icebox: A cookie makeup method in which the dough is shaped into cylinders, refrigerated, and sliced.
Ice Cream: A churn-frozen mixture of milk, cream, sugar, flavorings, and, sometimes, eggs.
Ice Milk: A frozen dessert similar to ice cream but with a lower fat content.
Icing Comb: A plastic triangle with toothed or serrated edges; used for texturing icings.
Instant Starch: A starch that thickens a liquid without cooking because it has been precooked.
Inversion: A chemical process in which a double sugar splits into two simple sugars.
Invert Sugar: A mixture of two simple sugars, dextrose and levulose, resulting from the breakdown of sucrose.
Italian Meringue: A meringue made by whipping a boiling syrup into egg whites.

J
Japonaise (zhah po nez): A baked meringue flavored with nuts.

K
Kernel Paste: A nut paste, similar to almond paste, made of apricot kernels and sugar.
Kilo-: Prefix in the metric system meaning “one thousand.”
Kirsch: A clear alcoholic beverage distilled from cherries.
Kirschtorte: A torte made of genoise, meringue disks, and buttercream and flavored with kirsch.
Kugelhopf: A type of rich, sweet bread or coffee cake, usually made in a tube-type pan.

L
Lactobacillus: A group of bacteria that are primarily responsible for creating the acidity in sourdough starters.
Ladyfinger: A small, dry, finger-shaped sponge cake or cookie.
Langue de Chat (lahng duh shah): A thin, crisp cookie. The French name means “cat’s tongue,” referring to the shape of the cookie.
Lattice Crust: A top crust for a pie made of strips of pastry in a criss-cross pattern.
Lean Dough: A dough that is low in fat and sugar.
Leavening: The production or incor- poration of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture.
Levain: Sourdough starter.
Levain-Levure: French for “yeast pre-ferment.”
Levure: Commercial yeast.
Linzertorte: A tart made of raspberry jam and a short dough containing nuts and spices.
Liter: The basic unit of volume in the metric system; equal to slightly more than one quart.

M
Macaroon: A cookie made of eggs (usually whites) and almond paste or coconut.

Malt Syrup: A type of syrup containing maltose sugar, extracted from sprouted barley.
Marble: To partly mix two colors of cake batter or icing so that the colors are in decorative swirls.
Margarine: An artificial butter product made of various hydrogenated fats and flavorings.
Marron: French for “chestnut.”
Marshmallow: A light confection, icing, or filling made of meringue and gelatin (or other stabilizers).
Marshmallow Icing: Boiled icing with the addition of gelatin.
Marzipan: A paste or confection made of almonds and sugar and often used for decorative work.
Meal: Coarsely ground grain.
Mealy Pie Crust: A pie crust in which the fat has been mixed in thoroughly enough so that the dough does not have a flaky texture.
Melba Sauce: A sweet sauce made of puréed raspberries and, sometimes, red currants.
Meringue: A thick, white foam made of whipped egg whites and sugar.
Meringue Chantilly (shawn tee yee): Baked meringue filled with whipped cream.
Meringue Glacée: Baked meringue filled with ice cream.
Meter: The basic unit of length in the metric system; slightly longer than one yard.
Metric System: A measurement system based entirely on decimals.
Milk Chocolate: Sweetened chocolate containing milk solids.
Millefeuille (mee foy): French term for napoleon; literally, “thousand leaves.” Also used for various layered desserts.
Milli-: Prefix in the metric system meaning “one-thousandth.”
Modeling Chocolate: A thick paste, made of chocolate and glucose, that can be molded by hand into decorative shapes.
Modified Straight Dough Method: A mixing method similar to the straight dough method, except that the fat and sugar are mixed together first to ensure uniform distribution; used for rich doughs.
Molasses: A heavy brown syrup made from sugar cane.
Molded: A cookie makeup method in which the dough is shaped into cylinders, cut into equal portions, and shaped as desired.
Monosaccharide: A simple or single sugar such as glucose and fructose.
Mousse: A soft or creamy dessert that is made light by the addition of whipped cream, egg whites, or both.
Muffin Method: A mixing method in which the mixed dry ingredients are combined with the mixed liquid ingredients.

N
Napoleon: A dessert made of layers of puff pastry filled with pastry cream.
Natural Sour: see Sourdough Starter.
Natural Starter: see Sourdough Starter.
Net Weight: The weight of the total contents of a can or package.

No-Time Dough: A bread dough made with a large quantity of yeast and given no fermentation time, except for a short rest after mixing.
Nougatine: A mixture of caramelized sugar and almonds or other nuts, used in decorative work and as a confection and flavoring.

O
Old Dough: A dough that is over-fermented.
One-Stage Method: A cookie-mixing method in which all ingredients are added to the bowl at once.
Opera Cake: A layer cake made of thin sponge layers, coffee-flavored buttercream, and chocolate ganache.
Othello: A small (single-portion size), spherical sponge cake filled with cream and iced with fondant.
Oven Spring: The rapid rise of yeast goods in the oven due to the production and expansion of trapped gases caused by the oven heat.
Overrun: The increase in volume of ice cream or frozen desserts due to the incorporation of air while freezing.

P
Pain de Campagne: French country-style bread.
Pain d’épice (pan day peece): A type of gingerbread (French name means “spice bread”).
Palmier (palm yay): A small pastry or petit four sec made of rolled, sugared puff pastry cut into slices and baked.
Panna Cotta: An Italian pudding made of cream, gelatin, and flavorings; literally, “cooked cream.”
Pannetone: An Italian sweet bread made in a large loaf, generally containing dried and candied fruits.
Parfait: (1) A type of sundae served in a tall, thin glass. (2) A still-frozen dessert made of egg yolks, syrup, and heavy cream.
Paris-Brest: A dessert consisting of a ring of baked éclair paste filled with cream.
Pasteurized: Heat-treated to kill bacteria that might cause disease or spoilage.
Pastillage: A sugar paste, used for decorative work, that becomes very hard when dry.
Pastry Cream: A thick custard sauce containing eggs and starch.
Pastry Flour: A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.
Pâte à Choux (pot ah shoo): éclair paste.
Pâte Brisée: A type of rich pastry dough used primarily for tarts.
Pâte Feuilleté (pot foo ya tay): French name for puff pastry.
Pâte Fermentée: Fermented dough, used as a starter.
Patent Flour: A fine grade of wheat flour milled from the inner portions of the kernel.
Peasant Tart: A baked tart with a custard filling containing prunes.
Pectin: A soluble plant fiber, used primarily as a jelling agent for fruit preserves and jams.
Peel: A flat wooden shovel used to place hearth breads in an oven and to remove them.
Petit Four: A delicate cake or pastry small enough to be eaten in one or two bites.
Petit Four Glacé: An iced or cream-filled petit four.
Petit Four Sec: An uniced or unfilled petit four (sec means “dry”), such as a small butter cookie or palmier.
Philadelphia-Style Ice Cream: Ice cream containing no eggs.
Phyllo (fee lo): A paper-thin dough or pastry used to make strudels and various Middle Eastern and Greek desserts.
Piping Jelly: A transparent, sweet jelly used for decorating cakes.
Pithiviers (pee tee vyay): A cake made of puff pastry filled with almond cream.
Poolish: A thin yeast starter made with equal parts flour and water, plus commercial yeast.

Pot de Crème (poh duh krem): A rich baked custard.
Pound Cake: (1) A cake made of equal weights of flour, butter, sugar, and eggs. (2) Any cake resembling this.
Pour Batter: A batter that is liquid enough to pour.
Poured Sugar: Sugar that is boiled to the hard crack stage and then poured into molds to harden. Also called cast sugar.
Praline: A confection or flavoring made of nuts and caramelized sugar.
Pre-ferment: A fermented dough or batter that is used to provide leavening for a larger batch of dough.
Press: A scaled piece of dough that is divided into small, equal units in a dough divider.
Profiterole: A small puff made of éclair paste. Often filled with ice cream and served with chocolate sauce.
Puff Pastry: A very light, flaky pastry made from a rolled-in dough and leavened by steam.
Pulled Sugar: Sugar that is boiled to the hard-crack stage, allowed to harden slightly, then pulled or stretched until it develops a pearly sheen.
Pullman Loaf: A long, rectangular loaf of bread.
Pumpernickel Flour: A coarse, flaky meal made from whole rye grains.
Punching: A method of expelling gases from fermented dough.
Purée: A food made into a smooth pulp, usually by being ground or forced through a sieve.

Q
Quenelle (kuh nell): A small oval portion of food.

R
Regular Shortening: Any basic shortening without emulsifiers, used for creaming methods and for icings.
Retarder-Proofer: An automated, timer-controlled combination of retarder/freezer and proofer, used for holding and proofing yeast products.
Retarding: Refrigerating a yeast dough to slow its fermentation.
Reversed Puff Pastry: A type of puff pastry made with the dough enclosed between layers of butter.
Ribbon Sponge: A thin sponge cake layer with a decorative design made of stencil paste.
Rice Condé: A thick, molded rice pudding, usually topped with fruit.
Rice Impératrice: A rich rice pudding containing whipped cream, candied fruits, and gelatin.
Rich Dough: A dough high in fat, sugar, and/or eggs.
Rolled: A cookie makeup method in which the dough is rolled out into a sheet and cut into shapes with cutters.
Rolled-in Dough: Dough in which a fat has been incorporated in many layers by using a rolling and folding procedure.
Rounding: A method of molding a piece of dough into a round ball with a smooth surface or skin.
Royal Icing: A form of icing made of confectioners’ sugar and egg whites; used for decorating.
Rye Blend: A mixture of rye flour and hard wheat flour.
Rye Meal: Coarse rye flour.

S
Sabayon: A foamy dessert or sauce made of egg yolks whipped with wine or liqueur.
Sachertorte: A rich chocolate cake from Vienna.
Sacristain (sak ree stan): A small pastry made of a twisted strip of puff paste coated with nuts and sugar.
St-Honoré: (1) A dessert made of a ring of cream puffs set on a short dough base and filled with a type of pastry cream. (2) The cream used to fill this dessert, made of pastry cream and whipped egg whites.
Savarin: A type of yeast bread or cake that is soaked in syrup.
Scaling: Weighing, usually of ingredients or of doughs or batters.
Scone: A type of biscuit or biscuitlike bread.
Scone Flour: A mixture of flour and baking powder that is used when very small quantities of baking powder are needed.
Seeding: A technique for tempering chocolate by adding grated tempered chocolate to melted chocolate to cool it.
Sfogliatelle (sfo lee ah tell eh): A Southern Italian flaky turnover pastry with a sweet cheese filling.
Sheet: A cookie makeup method in which the dough is baked in sheets and cut into portions.
Sherbet: A frozen dessert made of water, sugar, fruit juice, and, sometimes, milk or cream.
Short: Having a high fat content, which makes the product (such as a cookie or pastry) very crumbly and tender.
Shortbread: A crisp cookie made of butter, sugar, and flour.
Short Dough: A pastry dough, similar to a basic cookie dough, made of flour, sugar, and fat. See also Short.
Shortening: (1) Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands. (2) A white, tasteless, solid fat that has been formulated for baking or deep frying.
Simple Presentation: A style of plating a dessert consisting of a portion of one dessert plus optional sauces and garnishes.
Simple Syrup: A syrup consisting of sucrose and water in varying proportions.
Single-Acting Baking Powder: Baking powder that releases gases as soon as it is mixed with water.
Soft Pie: A single-crust pie with a custard-type filling-that is, a filling that sets or coagulates due to its egg content.
Soft Wheat: Wheat low in protein.
Solid Pack: A type of canned fruit or vegetable with no water added.
Sorbet (sor bay): French for “sherbet.”
Sorbetto: Italian for “sherbet.”
Soufflé: (1) A baked dish containing whipped egg whites, which cause the dish to rise during baking. (2) A still-frozen dessert made in a soufflé dish so that it resembles a baked soufflé.
Sour: Sourdough starter.
Sourdough: A dough that is leavened by a sourdough starter.
Sourdough Starter: A dough or batter that contains wild yeasts and bacteria, that has a noticeable acidity as a result of fermentation by these organisms, and that is used to leaven other doughs.
Sponge: A batter or dough of yeast, flour, and water that is allowed to ferment and is then mixed with more flour and other ingredients to make a bread dough.
Sponge Cake: A type of cake made by whipping eggs and sugar to a foam, then folding in flour.
Sponge Method: A cake-mixing method based on whipped eggs and sugar.
Sponge Roll: See Swiss Roll.
Spread: The tendency of a cookie to spread out and flatten when baked.
Spun Sugar: Boiled sugar made into long, thin threads by dipping wires into the sugar syrup and waving them so that the sugar falls off in fine streams.
Staling: The change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to the loss of moisture by the starch granules.
Stencil: A pattern cut from plastic or cardboard, used for depositing batter for thin cookies made in decorative shapes.
Stencil Paste: A type of thin cookie or wafer dough used to make cookies in decorative shapes and for making decorative patterns in ribbon sponge.
Stirred Custard: A custard that is stirred while it is cooked so that it thickens but does not set.
Stollen: A type of sweet yeast bread with fruit.
Straight Dough Method: A mixing method for yeast goods in which all ingredients are mixed together at once.
Straight Flour: Flour made from the entire wheat kernel minus the bran and germ.
Streusel (stroy sel): A crumbly topping for baked goods, consisting of fat, sugar, and flour rubbed together.
Strong Flour: Flour with a high protein content.
Strudel: (1) A type of dough that is stretched until paper thin. (2) A baked item consisting of a filling rolled up in a sheet of strudel dough or phyllo dough.
Sucrose: The chemical name for regular granulated sugar and confectioners’ sugar.
Sugar Cage: A lacy dome of hard or caramelized sugar.
Swiss Meringue: Egg whites and sugar warmed, usually over hot water, and then whipped to a foam.
Swiss Roll: A thin sponge cake layer spread with a filling and rolled up.
Syrup Pack: A type of canned fruit containing sugar syrup.

T
Tablage: A technique for tempering chocolate by cooling it on a marble slab.
Tart: A flat, baked item consisting of a pastry and a sweet or savory topping or filling; similar to a pie but usually thinner.
Tarte Tatin: An upside-down apple tart.
Tempering: The process of melting and cooling chocolate to specific temper- atures in order to prepare it for dipping, coating, or molding.
Three-Fold: A technique used to increase the number of layers in puff pastry or Danish pastry by folding the dough in thirds.
Tiramisu: An Italian dessert made of ladyfinger sponge flavored with espresso coffee and a creamy cheese filling.
Torte: German for various types of cakes, usually layer cakes.
Tulipe: A thin, crisp cookie molded into a cup shape.
Tunneling: A condition of muffin products characterized by large, elong- ated holes; caused by overmixing.
Turntable: A pedestal with a flat, rotating top, used for holding cakes while they are being decorated.
Two-Stage Method: A cake-mixing method, beginning with the blending of flour and high-ratio shortening, followed by the addition of liquids. Also called the high-ratio method.

V
Vacherin (vah sher ran): A crisp meringue shell filled with cream, fruits, or other items.

W
Wash: (1) A liquid brushed onto the surface of a product, usually before baking. (2) To apply such a liquid.
Water Pack: A type of canned fruit or vegetable containing the water used to process the item.
Weak Flour: Flour with a low protein content.
White Couverture: A confection consisting of cocoa butter, milk solids, and sugar. Sometimes erroneously called “white chocolate.”
Whole Wheat Flour: Flour made by grinding the entire wheat kernel, including the bran and germ.

Y
Yeast Starter: A type of sourdough starter made with a cultivated yeast.
Young Dough: A dough that is underfermented.

Z
Zabaglione: An Italian dessert or sauce made of whipped egg yolks and Marsala wine.
Zest: The colored outer portion of the peel of citrus fruits.

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